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Totally Free Clipart Downloads - Buttons & Button Designs Clip Art Images - Pictures Page 2|
Downloadable buttons & button designs cliparts - Buttons & Button Designs pictures, images, clipart downloads
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iFact #54 - The History of Clip Art - Clipart Images History - Clipart Facts & Trivia - Computer Cliparts
Part 1 Part 2
The History of Clip Art - Clipart Images History - Clipart Facts & Trivia - Computer Cliparts Part 2 of 2
Clipart Data Types
Clip art has two data types: bitmap and vector art and is sold on web based channels (Nova Development products) and searchable web galleries (Clipart.com). Vendors may provide images in both formats, or just one. Delivery options vary from retail packages to instant online downloads. Vendors typically market clip art by focusing either on quantity or vertical market specialty and the marketing method often goes hand in hand with the art style of the clip art sold.
Clip art vendors produce or license new and old clip art collections in volume to compete on quantity. Marketed this way, clip art is usually less expensive but more simple in structure and detail, as is typified by cartoons, line art, and symbols (e.g. Nova Development, Clipart.com and GraphicsFactory.com). Smaller and specialized Clip art tends to be more complex, modern, detailed, and spendy (WeddingClipart.com, GoodSalt.com).
Clipart File Formats
Electronic clip art is available in many different file formats. Understanding the difference between the individual formats is important for users so that image files, resolutions, and details are correct for the needed results.
Major Formats of Cliparts
The two different types of clip art file formats are bitmap or vector graphics.
Bitmap (rasterized) file formats are used to describe rectangular images made up of a grid of multicolored or black and white pixels. Scanned photos make use of a bitmap file format. Bitmaps are limited in quality by their resolution, which is fixed at the time of creation. If a bitmap is not rectangular, it is saved on a default background color defined by the smallest bounding rectangle in which the image fits.
Due to the fixed resolution in bitmaps, printing them can result in produce grainy, jagged, or blurred results if the resolution is not suited to the printer resolution. Bitmaps also become grainy when scaled larger than their intended resolution. Some bitmap file formats, such as Apple's PICT format, support alpha channels, that allow bitmaps to have transparent backgrounds or an image selection which uses antialiasing. Most common web-based file formats; GIF, JPEG, and PNG are bitmap file formats. The GIF file format is one of the simplest, low-resolution bitmap formats and only supports 256 colors per image. GIF files can be extremely small in size. Other common bitmap file formats include BMP (Windows bitmap), TGA, and TIFF. Most clip art is provided in a low resolution, bitmap file format that is not good for scaling, transparent backgrounds, or quality printed materials. Bitmap file formats are ideal for photographs, especially when combined with lossy data compression algorithms such as those available for JPEG files.
In contrast to the grid formatted bitmaps, Vector file formats use geometrics to define an image as a series of points, lines, curves, and polygons. Because the image is described using geometric data instead of fixed pixels, it can be scaled to any size while retaining "resolution independence", meaning that the image can be printed at the highest resolution a printer supports, without any loss of detail or quality. Vector file formats are usually superior to bitmaps due to resolution how easy it is to edit them, but are not as widely supported by software and are not well-suited for storing pixel-specific data such as scanned photographs. During the early years of electronic clip art, vector illustrations were limited to simple line art representations. By the early 2000s, vector illustration tools were able to produce virtually the same illustrations as bitmap illustration tools, while still providing all of the advantages of vector file formats. The most common vector file format is Adobe's EPS (Encapsulated PostScript). Microsoft has a simpler and less sophisticated vector format called Windows Metafile (WMF). The World Wide Web Consortium has developed a new, XML-based vector file format called SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) which may be supported by all web browsers in the future (Firefox and Opera support the format now). Vector provides the most flexible, highest quality images for those with image-editing experience or the interest to work with vector file formats.
Clip Art Image Rights
Clip art usage is governed by the terms of individual copyrights and usage rights. It is important to understand copyright and usage rights of a clip art image so that the image is used in a legal, permitted manner. The most categories of image rights are royalty free, rights managed, and public domain.
Royalty Free Clipart Images
Royalty free clipart images are often sold with royalty free licenses that may be limited or not have any limits and permit customers to use the images personal, editorial or commercial purposes. These royalty free image rights do sometimes vary from vendor to vendor and may have restrictions at certain companies.
Sometimes fine art clip art is licensed on a rights managed basis, meaning that the image is priced for a certain use for a certain amount of time, basically an image rental. Rights managed licensing of clip art has greatly declined within the past 20 years due to the preference of customers of royalty free licensing.
Public Domain Clipart Images
Public domain images are one of the most popular types of clip art since they are available at no cost if you know where to find them. Many images that are labeled as being in the public domain actually are not and are sometimes under copyright, making it illegal to use them without proper permissions from the copyright holder. The main cause for this confusion is due to the fact that once a public domain image is redrawn or edited in any way, it becomes a brand new image which is copyrightable by the editor. Often such images that have been edited are found available for purchase with royalty free or rights managed licenses by the editor.
In 1999, the United States District Court ruled as part of Bridgeman Art Library v. Corel Corp that exact copies of public domain images were not protected by US copyright law, however this ruling applies to currently only to photographs. It is not skill, experience or effort but originality that affects copyrightability of derivative images. The US Supreme Court in Feist v. Rural ruled that the difficulty of labor and expenses must be rejected as considerations in copyrightability. It is generally accepted that the creativity required to reproduce an illustration by hand is intrinsically original, and protected by copyright law.
As an example: The large clip art libraries of Dover Publications or the University of South Florida's Clipart ETC project are based on public domain images, but because the images have been scanned and edited by hand, they are again copyrighted images and are subject to very specific use policies. In order for a clip art image based on a public domain source to be truly in the public domain, you must have the proper rights granted to you by the individual or organization which digitized and edited the original source of the image (an original book is one example).
Internet popularity made the widespread copying of pirated clip art (which is then sold or given away as free clip art) very common. In reality, most clip art titled as free is usually illegally distributed. Almost all images published after January 1st 1923 still hold copyright protection under the federal laws in most countries. Images published before 1923 need to be researched to ensure that they are in the public domain.
The exception for images created after 1923 are images which are donated to the public domain by the artist or publisher. The open source community established the Open Clip Art Library in 2004 as a clearinghouse for images which are placed in the public domain directly by their copyright owners. This library contained over 6,500 images by 2006.
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